By N. Cook
EN1991-1-4, Eurocode 1: activities on buildings -General activities - half 1-4: Wind activities, is the pinnacle code for wind activities on buildings and describes the rules and standards for calculating layout wind lots on constructions. It complies with the necessities of Eurocode EN1990, Eurocode: foundation of Structural layout, and offers the wind activities essential to enforce the structural layout Eurocodes 2 to nine.
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Additional info for Designers' Guide to EN 1991-1-4 Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures, General Actions: Wind Actions (Eurocode Designers' Guide) (Pt. 1-4)
2001). However, it is unclear, given the differences in macroclimate between open and closed canopies, whether a similar response will be observed temporally for the growth and net primary productivity (NPP) of more mature stands. , 2003) is needed. 4 Water use in unmanaged plant systems For grasslands and deserts, there is a clear interaction between indirect (stomatal) effects of [CO2 ] on water use and stimulation of plant growth at the community level. Morgan et al. (2004) recently reviewed several ﬁeld experiments including Kansas 34 PLANT GROWTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE tallgrass prairie, Colorado shortgrass steppe, and Swiss calcareous grasslands, with all systems showing a greater [CO2 ] enhancement in dry years.
G. Jones, 1998), concluding that rising CO2 increases the water-use efﬁciency (WUE) of the leaf, usually deﬁned as the ratio of leaf carbon uptake to water loss. Carbon dioxide-induced improvements in leaf WUE have been suggested to either increase or maintain photosynthesis and carbon uptake indirectly for C3 plants in water-stressed environments (in addition to any direct effect of CO2 availability). g. Drake & Leadley, 1991). In spite of what is known regarding the effect of CO2 on stomatal conductance, not all aspects have been fully elucidated.
Long, 1991). However, over longer timescales (weeks), photosynthetic acclimation to temperature can obscure or eliminate this synergy (Bunce, 2000; Ziska, 2001a). 2 Inhibition of dark respiration The release of CO2 during the oxidation of organic compounds in the mitochondria is termed dark respiration. It is thought that dark respiration may be slower in the light than in darkness in photosynthetic tissue, but methods to quantify dark respiration occurring simultaneously with photosynthesis remain equivocal (Pinelli & Loreto, 2003).
Designers' Guide to EN 1991-1-4 Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures, General Actions: Wind Actions (Eurocode Designers' Guide) (Pt. 1-4) by N. Cook