By Pascal Massie
Properly identifying and faithfully following his historical and smooth resources, Pascal Massie proves himself to be a skilled and constant advisor for uncovering the ontological foundations of contingency within the worlds of Aristotle and John Duns Scotus.
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Extra resources for Contingency, Time, and Possibility: An Essay on Aristotle and Duns Scotus
Adjustments may be needed. 38 Smith in [87, p. 130]. 44 Actions and explanations Resolving the moral problem Assuming the concept of valuing developed in the previous paragraph, it follows that if an agent ﬁnds herself to have normative reason to p, then the agent believes she would desire to p if she was fully rational. Imagine now an agent believing she would desire to do p if she was fully rational, but failing to have the desire to p. Given that the mere fact of actually desiring not to p does not provide any reasons for changing an evaluative belief, she fails to have a desire which she believes it is rational for her to have.
27 The most decisive reason for this is that the identiﬁcation of valuing with a second order desire is arbitrary. 28 If valuing cannot be reduced to any kind of desiring per se, it remains to be considered whether valuing can be identiﬁed with a kind of believing. However, the attitude of valuing cannot be reduced to that of simply believing something to be valuable, since the attitude of valuing seems to imply a favourable attitude towards whatever is valued. 29 This argument seems to re-establish a connection between valuing and desiring.
2 Explaining the basic premise 51 source of motivation is not the beliefs. Contrary to the Humean theory of motivation, it relegates the source of motivation not to a Humean desire but rather to facts of the world. In terms of direction of ﬁt the two representations maintain the direction of ﬁt of beliefs, as they are still states that aim to be caused by the truth of their own content. 61 So far, so good. 2 Explaining the basic premise Having considered some diﬀerent conceptions of moral motivation developed in response to the moral problem, it is now time to clarify how these considerations may feed into a model for the explanation of the basic premise ([TBP]).
Contingency, Time, and Possibility: An Essay on Aristotle and Duns Scotus by Pascal Massie