By Joseph Cruz
This new version of the vintage modern Theories of data has been considerably up to date to incorporate analyses of the hot literature in epistemology. instead of in basic terms making moderate amendments to the 1st version, Pollock and Cruz have undertaken a groundbreaking evaluate of twentieth-century epistemology. This ebook is either a complicated textbook providing conventional discussions of foundationalism, coherentism, and reliabilism and a close treatise at the authors' personal targeted view, direct realism.
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Extra resources for Contemporary Theories of Knowledge
This is called cognitive essentialism. According to cognitive essentialism, the epistemic correctness of a cognitive process is an essential feature of that process and is not affected by contingent facts such as the reliability of the process in the actual world. 28. For sensitive discussions of the varieties of internalism, see William Alston (1986), Richard Fumerton (1995), and Alvin Plantinga (1993a). 4 Externalism Externalism is the denial of internalism. According to externalism, more than just the internal states of the believer enter into the justification of beliefs.
Pollock was primarily influenced by the rather sketchy remarks about ÒcriteriaÓ in Wittgenstein (1953). It is interesting that defeasible reasoning was discovered independently a few years later by researchers working on artificial intelligence, and has been the subject of considerable research in that field. They use the terms Òdefault reasoningÓ and Ònonmonotonic reasoningÓ for defeasible reasoning. The original papers were those of Jon Doyle (1979), Raymond Reiter (1978) and (1980), Drew McDermott and Jon Doyle (1980), and John McCarthy (1980).
What justifies our reasoning in this way? 1 Phenomenalism Although we have rejected the idea that the only reasons are conclusive reasons, that supposition played an important historical role in the problem of perception. On that supposition, we could only explain perceptual knowledge by finding logical entailments between the way things look and the way they are. To get from an objectÕs looking red to its being red we would have to find some further premise which, when conjoined with the fact that the object looks red to us, entails that the object is red.
Contemporary Theories of Knowledge by Joseph Cruz