By Michael Krepon
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Additional info for Commercial Observation Satellites and International Security
In a typical year, the Soviet Union will conduct five times as many space launches as the United States, largely because many of its satellite missions are of short duration. In contrast, the United States relies heavily on small numbers of highly sophisticated, durable satellites. While this philosophy may change somewhat in the future, the United States will not approach the number of Soviet launches, even after fully refurbishing domestic space launch capabilities. S. or Soviet efforts in space lean heavily to military-related and 18 The New Hierarchy in Space intelligence-gathering applications.
Notes 1. Colleen Sullivan, untitled paper prepared for the Carnegie Endowment's Commercial Observation Satellite Project, March 10, 1988, unpublished, n. 1, p. 14; and Ann M. Fiorini, "The Opening Skies," International Security, vol. 13, no. 2, Fall, 1988, p. 100. 2. , May 1987, p. 8. For further details see this report. 3. Fiorini, "The Opening Skies," n. 2, p. 93. 4. For a discussion of the military uses of satellite imagery see Jeffrey Richelson, "Implications for Nations Without Space-Based Intelligence Collection Capabilities," Ch.
The hierarchy of states in space is currently defined by the ability to conduct manned missions and to launch satellites. rather than by the deployment of weapons. At present. only the superpowers are capable of manned space missions, but a growing number of states can launch satellites. These satellites can be used exclusively for military and intelligence-gathering purposes. or for communications. navigation. scientific exploration. environmental monitoring, economic development. and commerce.
Commercial Observation Satellites and International Security by Michael Krepon