By V.A.G. Rivera, O.B. Silva, Y. Ledemi, Y. Messaddeq, E. Marega Jr.
This booklet represents the 1st distinct description, together with either theoretical features and experimental tools, of the interplay of rare-earth ions with floor plasmon polariton from the viewpoint of collective plasmon-photon interactions through resonance modes (metal nanoparticles or nanostructure arrays) with quantum emitters (rare-earth ions). those interactions are of specific curiosity for functions to optical telecommunications, optical monitors, and laser sturdy nation applied sciences. therefore, our major aim is to provide a extra designated review of the quickly rising box of nanophotonics through the learn of the quantum homes of sunshine interplay with topic on the nanoscale. during this manner, collective plasmon-modes in a achieve medium end result from the interaction/coupling among a quantum emitter (created through rare-earth ions) with a steel floor, inducing varied results akin to the polarization of the steel electrons (so-called floor plasmon polariton - SPP), a box enhancement sustained by means of resonance coupling, or move of power as a result of non-resonant coupling among the metal nanostructure and the optically energetic surrounding medium. those results counteract the absorption losses within the steel to augment luminescence homes or maybe to manage the polarization and part of quantum emitters. The engineering of plasmons/SPP in achieve media constitutes a brand new box in nanophotonics technological know-how with an important technological power in built-in optics/photonics on the nanoscale in line with the regulate of quantum results. This ebook may be a necessary software for scientists, engineers, and graduate and undergraduate scholars not just in a brand new frontier of primary physics, but additionally within the consciousness of nanophotonic units for optical telecommunication.
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Extra info for Collective Plasmon-Modes in Gain Media: Quantum Emitters and Plasmonic Nanostructures
1. Metals like copper and platinum also presented similar problems. The imaginary part diverges greatly from the theoretical model compared to the real part. Since Im [εm(ω)] is associated with the losses to which free electrons are subjected, such as electron–electron interaction (collisions or Coulomb repulsion), electron–phonon interaction, or even lattice defects due to impurities arising from the deposition process of the metal over a substrate, this can lead to deviations from the model. Furthermore, although metals have a considerable number of free charge carriers, they also possess bound electrons.
We apply the boundary conditions for E and H at the metal–dielectric interface, both with different EM properties. However, both components, E and H, are tangent to the surface and must be continuous across the boundary. Additionally, let us represent the QEs as oscillating dipoles. Thus, the EM field of these QEs can be expressed as integrals over plane waves interacting with the metallic film/structure, resulting in a directional emission that can be theoretically investigated. 3 Surface Plasmons, Polaritons, and the Gain Medium EQE ¼ Z À ÁÂ È Ã iμ0 c2 k3 pQE 1 nρ 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ inz J 1 knρ ρ aeiknz z À beÀiknz z ρ^ r 2 2 4πnnd nd À n ρ 0 Ã É À ÁÂ ikn z Ànρ J 0 knρ ρ ae z þ beÀiknz z z^ dnρ 17 ð1:32Þ and H QE ¼ À ck3 pQE 4π Z 0 1 ÁÂ È À Ã É nρ 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ J 1 knρ ρ aeiknz z þ beÀiknz z φ^ r dnρ : ð1:33Þ 2 2 nd À nρ Here, nd is the refractive index of a dielectric containing the QE, nρ ¼ kρ/k, where kρ is the in-plane component of the wave vector; nz ¼ kz/k, where kz is the z-component of the wave vector; c is the speed of light in vacuum; μ0 is the vacuum permeability; a and b are the electric field components for the forward and backward EM components, respectively; Jm are the Bessel functions of order m; φ^ r is the unit pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ vector in the azimuthal direction; ρ ¼ x2 þ y2 ; x, y, and z are the Cartesian coordinates; and pQE is the radiating dipole moment of the QE.
The excitation wavelength is lower than that of emission. In up-conversion emission, this principle is not followed: the energy of the emitted photons is higher than that of the excitation photons, or, in other words, the emission wavelength is lower than that of excitation. The involved mechanisms of this so-called anti-Stokes fluorescence have been well described by Auzel in . Different nonlinear processes for excitation exist and lead to different types of up-conversion emission, for instance, cooperative luminescence, cooperative sensitization, the APTE (an acronym for the French name Addition de Photon par Transfert d’Energie) effect, second-harmonic generation (SHG), etc.
Collective Plasmon-Modes in Gain Media: Quantum Emitters and Plasmonic Nanostructures by V.A.G. Rivera, O.B. Silva, Y. Ledemi, Y. Messaddeq, E. Marega Jr.