By David K. Lynch, Kenneth Sassen, David O'C. Starr, Graeme Stephens
Cirrus clouds are excessive, skinny, tropospheric clouds composed predominately of ice. within the final ten years, massive paintings has proven that cirrus is widespread--more universal than formerly believed--and has an important impression on weather and international swap. because the subsequent iteration climate satellites are being designed, the influence of cirrus on distant sensing and the worldwide power price range has to be well-known and accommodated. This e-book, the 1st to be committed fullyyt to cirrus clouds, captures the kingdom of information of cirrus and serves as a realistic instruction manual besides. every one bankruptcy is predicated on an invited assessment speak awarded at Cirrus, a gathering hosted via the Optical Society of the US and co-sponsored via the yank Geophysical Union and the yank Meteorological Society. All elements of cirrus clouds are lined, an strategy that reaches into varied fields. subject matters comprise: the definition of cirrus, cirrus climatologies, nucleation, evolution and dissipation, mixed-phase thermodynamics, crystallinity, orientation mechanisms, dynamics, scattering, radiative move, in situ sampling, procedures that produce or impression cirrus (and vice versa), contrails, and the impact of cirrus on weather.
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Extra resources for Cirrus
3 are the average cirrus layer thickness when multiple layers are present and the average thickness of all combined single and multiple layers. 5-km gap in lidar signals), although it must be recognized that in many instances a single 10-min observation period may yield multiple layers that merely represent breaks in a vertically continuous layer that are due to the effects of wind shear on fallstreaks. This sample also uses only those cirrus that did not appear to be affected by a loss of cloud-top signals due to rangelimiting laser attenuation in dense cirrus or, more commonly, the limited (8bit) dynamic range of the detector package in the presence of a strongly backscattering layer.
Such mid-level clouds are operationally distinguished from cirrus by the visual loss of sharpness (or disappearance) of the solar (or lunar) disk, accompanied by descending cloud base heights. These useful distinctions have been related to approximate ranges in lidar-derived cloud optical thickness t. 1. 0 using anolog photodetectors (Kinne et al. 1992), which corresponds to the point where the sun visually becomes dim and irregular (Sassen and Cho 1992). This upper limit in i for cirrostratus, however, may not always hold for some varieties of cirrus.
Because of their high altitudes, these cold, ice-dominated clouds act as a thermal blanket by trapping the outgoing terrestrial (infrared) radiation, but, at the same time, they can be effective at reflecting the incoming solar radiation back out to space. The balance between these two radiative processes, the greenhouse and albedo effects, respectively, determines the net impact of cirrus on our climate system. , see Stephans et al. 1990). These properties in turn depend on the weather processes that generate cirrus, a function of geographic location, thereby complicating the global view.
Cirrus by David K. Lynch, Kenneth Sassen, David O'C. Starr, Graeme Stephens