By Gary G. Matthews
Mobile body structure of Nerve and Muscle, Fourth version bargains a cutting-edge creation to the fundamental actual, electric and chemical rules critical to the functionality of nerve and muscle cells. The textual content starts with an outline of the foundation of electric membrane capability, then essentially illustrates the mobile body structure of nerve cells and muscle cells. all through, this re-creation simplifies tricky thoughts with available versions and easy descriptions of experimental results.An all-new creation to electric signaling within the anxious method. multiplied assurance of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. A quantitative review of homes of cells. New certain illustrations.
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Additional resources for Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle, Fourth Edition
Another name for voltage is electromotive force. This name emphasizes the fact that voltage is the driving force for the movement of electrical charges through space; without a voltage gradient there is no net movement of charged particles. Thus, voltage can be thought of as a pressure driving charges in a particular direction, just as the pressure in the water pipe drives water out through your tap when you open the valve. Unlike the pressure in a hydraulic system, however, a voltage gradient can move charges in two opposing directions, depending on the polarity of the charge.
Thus, osmotic factors can be neglected for the moment. However, both Na+ and Cl− will move down their concentration gradients from right to left until their concentrations are equal in both compartments. In aqueous solution, Na+ and Cl− do not move at the same rate; Cl− is more mobile and moves from right to left more quickly than Na+. This is because ions dissolved in water carry with them a loosely associated “cloud” of water molecules, and Na+ must drag along a larger cloud than Cl−, causing it to move more slowly.
In addition, it was found that the radioactive cells slowly lost their radioactive sodium when incubated in normal ECF. This latter observation was surprising because both the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient for sodium are directed inward; neither would tend to move sodium out of the cell. Further, the rate of this loss of radioactive sodium from the cell interior was slowed dramatically by cooling the cells, indicating that a source of energy other than simple diffusion was being tapped to actively “pump” sodium out of the cell against its concentrational and electrical gradients.
Cellular Physiology of Nerve and Muscle, Fourth Edition by Gary G. Matthews