By P. L. Villa, S. Rapagnà (auth.), Eric G. Derouane, Jerzy Haber, Francisco Lemos, Fernando Ramôa Ribeiro, Michel Guisnet (eds.)
Light alkanes are typically immune to many varieties of activation. The horizontal strategy of the current booklet covers homogeneous, heterogeneous and organic catalysis, therefore permitting readers to realize an know-how of development and concepts in study parts diversified from their very own. The publication comprises either common chapters, giving an outline of the topic, and specialized contributions that care for the main points and cutting-edge. a expert document is additionally incorporated which provides a severe perception into present development and discusses destiny customers and significant demanding situations.
Audience: newbies and senior researchers within the box of alkane activation. The combined theoretical and functional strategy may be of curiosity to researchers and industrialists alike.
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Extra resources for Catalytic Activation and Functionalisation of Light Alkanes: Advances and Challenges
Methane can be indirectly transformed into higher hydrocarbons by converting first natural gas into synthesis gas, CO+H2, via steam reforming at high temperatures, and subsequent transformation of syngas into hydrocarbons by low-temperature exothermic processes. One of them is based on the FischerTropsch (F-T) synthesis , producing a mixture of straight-chain olefins and paraffins that obeys the Schulz-Fiory (S-F) molecular weight distribution, together with some oxygenate products. The process has been commercialized by Sasol in South Africa using an Fe-based catalyst that produces the full range of products according to the Schutz-Flory distribution.
I' - "'' MD + R - . - -MG--R+ /j M-0"' + R - ~p s M-0/ " O - R Scheme 2. mechanism proposed for the activation of alkanes on SZ catalysts. Both the physicochemical and catalytic properties of these materials are strongly dependent on the preparation conditions. A careful control and optimization of each preparation step is needed if maximum catalytic activity so wants to be obtained. Important parameters are for instance the pH of precipitation at which the zirconium hydroxide is obtained, the concentration of sulphate in the impregnation step, and the final calcination temperature at which the sulfated zirconium hydroxide is submitted .
1 Aromatization of CrC1 alkanes The Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments established in 1990 in USA contemplate a reduction of the gasoline volatility that will result in a removal of the n-butane stream from the gasoline pool. Moreover, an excess of CrC4 alkanes will be expected from FCC units when operated for maximizing short olefins to be used in MTBE or alkylation units. This situation obviously will create an excess of LPG in the refinery, and therefore its transformation into liquid fuels or more valuable petrochemicals is of high interest.
Catalytic Activation and Functionalisation of Light Alkanes: Advances and Challenges by P. L. Villa, S. Rapagnà (auth.), Eric G. Derouane, Jerzy Haber, Francisco Lemos, Fernando Ramôa Ribeiro, Michel Guisnet (eds.)