By John Green
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Additional info for Atmospheric dynamics
1 Net Radiation at the Earth’s Surface The radiation in the atmosphere is divided into shortwave (solar) radiation and longwave (heat) radiation. 2). The net radiation at the ground surface is given by: QÃs ¼ K " þ K # þ I " þ I # ð1:2Þ From Eq. 2) we see that the net radiation is the sum of the shortwave down-welling radiation mainly from the sun (global radiation), the longwave down-welling infrared (heat) radiation emitted by clouds, aerosols, and gases, the shortwave up-welling reflected (solar) radiation, and the longwave up-welling infrared (heat) radiation.
The most important variances are a positive latent heat flux after sunset and a negative sensible heat flux that begins in the early afternoon (oasis effect). A negative latent heat flux (evaporation) is identical with dewfall. 1. Even 1 Supplements are short summaries from textbooks in meteorology and other sciences. These are included for an enhanced understanding of this book or for comparisons. For details, see the relevant textbooks. 12 1 General Basics Fig. 1 Radiation and energy fluxes in Wm−2 at the earth surface (Kiehl and Trenberth 1997, modiﬁed and updated) Reference K#- K"- I"-I# QH QE Budyko (1974)a –157 52 17 88 –171 68 24 79 Henderson-Sellers and Robinson (1986)a –151 51 21 79 Liou (1992)a –171 72 17 82 Hartmann (1994)a –168 66 24 78 Kiehl and Trenberth (1997)a –161 63 17 80 Trenberth et al.
Priestley CHB and Swinbank WC (1947) Vertical transport of heat by turbulence in the atmosphere. Proceedings Royal Society London. A189:543–561. Reynolds O (1894) On the dynamical theory of turbulent incompressible viscous fluids and the determination of the criterion. Phil Trans R Soc London. A 186:123–161. Richardson LF (1920) The supply of energy from and to atmospheric eddies. Proceedings Royal Society. A 97:354–373. Roedel W and Wagner T (2011) Physik unserer Umwelt: Die Atmosphäre. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg pp.
Atmospheric dynamics by John Green