By David G. Andrews
A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual ideas. This variation has been introduced thoroughly up to date, and now incorporates a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather switch which builds upon fabric brought in past chapters, giving the scholar a extensive knowing of a few of the actual thoughts underlying this most vital and topical topic. unlike many different books on atmospheric technological know-how, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric functions are built typically within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The booklet is a necessary source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technology, planetary technological know-how, or utilized arithmetic direction.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics
For typical atmospheric values of T and μs it is found that s ≤ a . 11. Note that s depends on 39 The saturated adiabatic lapse rate the temperature and pressure, through its dependences on T and μs (T, p). 49) say. 49) are called saturated adiabatics. Given the expression for s and suitable starting values of T and p, they may readily be calculated numerically. 5 relating to the static stability of a region of the atmosphere can now be extended to allow for the effects of moisture. In particular, it follows that, if the actual lapse rate is less than the SALR s , then the region is statically stable even if the air is saturated.
8. 1 hPa. 09Vl (unlike most substances, water expands on freezing) and the speciﬁc volume of water vapour is Vv ≈ 2 × 105 Vl . 35) of the Clausius–Clapeyron equation applies to each of these transitions. 38); indeed, since the two latent heats are fairly similar in size, the two curves are quite close. 37 The saturated adiabatic lapse rate Fig. 8 The phase transitions between ice, liquid water and water vapour. The triple point is indicated by the small solid circle. 4 × 105 hPa K−1 near the triple point.
18) where H = U + pV is the enthalpy. 18) involve functions of state, they apply both for reversible and for irreversible changes. 19) also hold. 20) where cv is the speciﬁc heat capacity at constant volume and is independent of T. 21) where cp = cv + Ra is the speciﬁc heat capacity of air at constant pressure. 18), we get T δS = cp δT − Ra T δp. 24) where κ = Ra /cp , which is approximately 27 for a diatomic gas, and S0 is a constant. An adiathermal process is one in which heat is neither gained nor lost, so that δQ = 0.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics by David G. Andrews