By James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,
South Asia's HIV epidemic is extremely heterogeneous. accordingly, proficient, prioritized, and powerful responses necessitate an realizing of the epidemic range among and inside of international locations. additional unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the longer term dimension of South Asia's epidemic is dependent upon an efficient two-pronged procedure: first of all, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse employees and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to handle the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to minimize stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans undertaking excessive threat behaviors, frequently marginalized in society, in addition to humans dwelling with HIV and AIDS. This overview was once undertaken to supply a foundation for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV coverage and programming in South Asia.
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Extra info for AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series)
Bridge population local partners Analytic Framework • 9 migration destination and then may infect their sexual partners without spreading HIV beyond the partner. Local Concentrated Epidemic The term local concentrated epidemic refers to an epidemic characterized by substantially enough spread networks locally (such as SW or IDU networks) to initiate and sustain local transmission within high-risk subpopulations and to the wider local population through bridge populations. The size of the high-risk subpopulations and other sexual networks in the local area would largely determine the size of such epidemics, but HIV transmission dynamics remain driven by the high-risk networks.
Men Having Sex with Men Data on HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM) in the South Asia Region are scarce, and more efforts to collect such data have been undertaken. Biobehavioral surveillance in Pakistan revealed that HIV prevalence was 2 percent among hijras and 4 percent among male SWs in Karachi. 5 percent among male SWs in Lahore (NACP 2005b). 8 percent among hijras (NASP 2005). In contrast, HIV prevalence rates among MSM in Goa, Mumbai, and Tamil Nadu have ranged from 2 percent to over 50 percent in samples at different times.
Badi women historically worked as entertainers, but the scope of their occupation has evolved to include sex work. Mapping studies estimate a high concentration of female SWs (9,600) in the highway districts of Nepal, with a substantial number in the Kathmandu Valley (4,000) and some in Pokhara of the western region (300) (NCASC and FHI 2003). The client load among female SWs from the Kathmandu Valley resembles that among female SWs from Colombo: only 10 percent reported more than five clients per week (Furber, Newell, and Lubben 2002).
AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series) by James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,