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Thus, the magnitude and sign of retardation are independent from the light travel direction (the nonreciprocal nature of optical retardation). 11a) we can rotate linear polarizations. The polarization plane at the output side of a rotator differs by an angle α from the input polarization plane (LP/LP conversion). This rotation effect is also called “optical activity” in the literature. There are left-handed and right-handed rotators (LHR: +α; RHR: −α) turning the polarization plane clockwise and counterclockwise, respectively.

For large quantities of particles at the higher level E2 , they emit photons of energy v = E 2 − E 1 independently and randomly. In other words, each particle independently emits its photon. The phases for these independent light waves are not related to one another, and each individual light wave may have a different polarization from others and may propagate in any possible direction. From this point of view, the transition between energy levels of particles is completely spontaneous; that is whether any optic radiation in matter exists or not, spontaneous emission must take place.

Collett, E. (1993) Polarized Light – Fundamentals and Applications, Marcel Dekker, New York. 2 Basic Physical Effects Inside Lasers [1–10] In this chapter, as a continuation to the system-oriented approach of Chapter 1, some basic laser physics as well as some technological aspects, associated with the academic contributions in this monograph, will be introduced to help readers understand the main part of the book. For those already familiar with the physics and technology of lasers, this chapter may be skipped.

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Advanced Light Source - Users Handbook

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