By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This functional instruction manual brings jointly a variety of bibliographic info on irregular pressures and provides the sensible adventure of the authors and numerous specialists inside of Elf-Aquitaine. basically destined for everyday use through subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anywhere they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes a few of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the equipment to be had for his or her prediction, detection and assessment. it is going to even be important to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference handbook.
checklist of relevant Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain innovations
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain evaluate
five. precis and total Conclusions - aid Chart
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Additional resources for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
T Direction of comDaction ~ . ~ ~ & Hydrostatic pressure Fig. 20. - Probable porosity and pressure distribution in a shale/sand series during compaction (Magara, 1974, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists). 35 The mechanism for expelling water from clays towards porous reservoirs is the same as that for a fluid to migrate towards zones of lower resistance to flow. As expulsion rate is at a maximum close to drains, the early stages of this process lead to compaction in the immediately adjacent clay beds.
I+ Accretionary prism -1 Fig. 35. - Example of a subduction zone. 57 The Barbados accretionary prism is an example of multiple imbricated overthrust faults. Their development is intimately linked with abnormal fluid pressures in undercompacted argillaceous layers (SPEED,1983). , 1982). , 1985). Mud volcanoes are the ultimate manifestation of clay diapirism. They tend to be situated along large, active transcurrent faults, such as in New Zealand (Alpine fault), Trinidad, the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan, and so on.
They are capable of depriving impervious rocks of their ability to act as a seal. On the other hand, plastic clays, anhydrites and above all salt deposits are self-repairing, and are the only seals capable of retaining their impermeability even in conditions of severe deformation (Iraq, Iran). Fracture intensity depends on both the stress field (ie. the type of tectonic activity) and the mechanical behaviour of the layers. It is important to note that overpressure may often be laterally induced by the juxtaposition, by fault movement, of formations with different pressure regimes.
Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation by Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet