By Frances W. Zweifel
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Additional info for A Handbook of Biological Illustration
Protect the final ground from further smudging and skin oil by placing a piece of paper under your hand while dra~ving,or rnake a mask for the drawing (see p. 26). When the preliminary drawing has been transferred satisfactorily to the final gro~und,you are ready to begin the finished drawing. Black-and-white Illustrations Line copy is any artwork that contains only black and white, no gray or color; the effect of shading is achieved by the placing and spacing of lines and dots. Line copy is usually reproduced by offset, sometimes by letterpress.
O r di~iarilythe biological illustrator will not be required to produce a n elaborate picturc such as a landscape, requiring tlie use of linear per- spcctivc. If a knowledge of linear pcrspcctivc is necessary, refer to a textbook or see John hlontague, Basic Perspective Drawing: A Visual ADproach, listed in Selected Refercnccs. CLEANLINESS Kccp the work as clca~ias possible, ~ i n c cdirt and smudges niay reproduce photographically. If such marks cannot be erased satisfactorily from line copy, they may bc covered with superwhite gouache paint (see p.
Act0 knife (blade no. 1 1 or 16) for cleaning lines or1 film Gouache white-out paint such as Pelikan Graphic b7hite, Dr. Xlartin's Bleed Proof White, or Pro White Scratchhoard Ura\fzings Fine and medium round watercolor brushes Mcdiurn-fine and medium-coarse pens FIG 7 Techn~cdlpen ( C o u r t e s ~Koh-I-Noor Cornpan\) Waterproof black drawing ink; special inks for technical pens Scratchboard, such as EssDee British scraperboard (source given in Selected References); or Matte-surface (frosted) acetate or polyester film, heavyweight Erasers: kneaded (for cleaning the ground); Koh-I-Noor "imbibed" eraser (for filrn) Pounce (draftsman's pumice) Fine scalpel or X-Acto knife (blade no.
A Handbook of Biological Illustration by Frances W. Zweifel